Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. [69] The United States Department of Energy estimates that if algae fuel replaced all the petroleum fuel in the United States, it would require 15,000 square miles (39,000 km2), which is only 0.42% of the U.S. map,[70] or about half of the land area of Maine. and Kappaphycus spp. If left unmanaged, such a development could, in the worst case, contribute to large-scale ecosystem changes (e.g. Several environmental problems can result from seaweed farming. Also, algae fuels are an alternative to commonly known biofuel sources, such as corn and sugarcane. For example, some criteria for seaweed farming are not very well defined, such as minimum distance from freshwater discharges, and can vary spatially and seasonally, depending on the species being farmed. By farming seaweed, we sustainably source nutrition from the ocean, reduce dependence on freshwater for food production, and mitigate ocean acidification. Three different types of hydrolysis are used depending on the process design and the nature of the enzymes. It utilized an artificial substrate composed of cut bundles of bamboo or brushwood, affixed in shallow areas where spores of wild Porphyra, once released, became attached to the Hibi. In mariculture systems, such problems have been particularly acute in intensive cage culture, where self-pollution has led to disease and water-quality problems which have undermined the sustainability of farming, from economic and environmental viewpoints. The rapid expansion in some areas with limited resources (e.g., water and seed) has led to overexploitation of these resources beyond the capacity of the environment to sustain growth, followed by an eventual collapse. [4] Pollnac & et al 1997b harvnb error: no target: CITEREFPollnacet_al1997b (help) reported an increase in Siginid population after the start of extensive farming of eucheuma seaweed in villages in North Sulawesi, Indonesia. extensive seagrass loss, or spread of farmed algae to adjacent coral reefs), with implications for the production of several ecological goods and services (Eklöf, Henriksson, & Kautsky, 2006; Eklöf et al., 2005). Could Our Energy Come from Giant Seaweed Farms in the Ocean? For example, Eucheuma denticulatum (Burman) Collins & Harvey and Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty) have been farmed in shallow lagoons for the polysaccharide, carrageenan, using the ‘off-bottom’ method where algal thalli, tied to strings stretched between wooden sticks, driven into the sea bottom, are harvested every 2–3 months. The nets are suspended afloat by ropes moored on the sea bottom, or the ends of the nets are tied to wooden poles. [56] Handling Lyngbya majuscula can also cause seaweed dermatitis. Using current technology, extensively available sea areas may be cultivated to produce crops that require no freshwater or fertilizers, while providing a variety of valuable ecosystem services. Seaweeds are a highly renewable food resource. She is one of a growing number of ocean farmers engaged in 3D farming, cultivating her crops vertically in straight up-and-down water columns, using no fertilizers, freshwater … Two major derivitative products are Carrageenan and Agar. For the process of collecting seaweed as a hobby, see, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFPollnacet_al1997b (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFIPCC_SROCC2019 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFNaylor1967 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFPollnacet_al1997a (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFPollnacet_al1997b (, Special Report on the Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate, Revised and Augmented Survey of the Geography of Korea, Drawdown: The Most Comprehensive Plan Ever Proposed to Reverse Global Warming, "Can Seaweed Farming Play a Role in Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation? [15][16] Species cultured by long-line include those of the genera Saccharina, Undaria, Eucheuma, Kappaphycus, and Gracilaria. Seaweed farming is already quite cost efficient. Fig. Seaweed farming and its surprising benefits. The seaweed grows underwater for 45 days. Hypnea musciformis has been used in Brazil. For example, because some of them are fast-growing, it is often possible to produce multiple crops per year in the same space, while the aquatic environment allows for farming all year round in most latitudes. Figure 6.5. [12][13] Seaweed farming can be mixed with other aquaculture, such as shellfish, to improve water bodies, such as in the practices developed by American non-profit GreenWave. In its simplest form, it consists of the management of naturally found batches. This is largely driven by growth in the seaweed farming activities of Indonesia, China, and the Philippines. As this pilot-farm for kelp was installed at a depth of 30–40 m, light attenuation was considered not to be an issue. Red seaweeds are used for the production of carrageenan and agar. In its most advanced form, it consists of fully controlling the life cycle of the algae. Yimin Qin, in Bioactive Seaweeds for Food Applications, 2018. [29], Seaweed farming helps to preserve coral reefs[11] by increasing diversity where the algae and seaweed have been introduced, and it also provides an added niche for local species of fish and invertebrates. Other conventional, usually broadcast methods are actually modified systems of vegetative propagation. The high demand for seaweed production provides plentiful opportunities and work for the local community. Farmers may also sometimes remove eelgrass from their farming areas. [44], Agar is a mixture of two components: the linear polysaccharide agarose, and a heterogeneous mixture of smaller molecules called agaropectin. The energy crisis and the world food crisis have ignited interest in algaculture (farming algae) for making biodiesel and other biofuels using land unsuitable for agriculture. These projects can be realized only with the development of macroalgae farming, but for the moment, despite the different national projects aiming to develop this activity, seaweed farming is still taking its first steps.
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